OM8101 - Theories of Leadership

Agashae, Z., & Bratton, J. (2001). Leader-follower dynamics: Developing a learning environment. Journal of Workplace Learning, 13(3/4), 89-102.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.)(2000). Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
Andersen, J. (2000). The weight of history: An exploration of resistance to change in vicars/managers. Creativity & Innovation Management, 9(3), 147-155.
Aronson, E. (2001). Integrating leadership styles and ethical perspectives. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 18(4), 244-256.
Atwater, L. E., & Yammarino, F. J. (1993). Personal attributes as predictors of superiors’ and subordinates’ perceptions of military academy leadership. Human Relations, 46(5), 645-668.
Avolio, B. J. (1994). The “natural”: Some antecedents to transformational leadership. International Journal of Public Administration, 17, 1559-1581.
Avolio, B. J., & Gibbons, T. C. (1988). Developing transformational leaders: A lifespan approach. In J. A. Conger & R. N. Kanungo (Eds.), Charismatic leadership: The elusive factor in organizational effectiveness (pp. 276-308). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Baker, K. A., & Branch, K. M. (2002). Concepts underlying organizational effectiveness: Trends in the organization and management science literature. In E. L. Malone (Ed.), Managing science as a public good: Overseeing publicly funded science. Washington DC: Office of Planning & Analysis, Office of Science, Department of Energy.
Barling, J., Weber, T., & Kelloway, E. K. (1996). Effects of transformational leadership training on attitudinal and financial outcomes: A field experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(6), 827-832.
Barnard, C. I. (1968). The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. M. (1990a). Bass & Stogdill’s handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. M. (1990b). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), 19-31.
Bass, B. M. (1996). A new paradigm of leadership: An inquiry into transformational leadership. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Bass, B. M. (1997). Does the transactional-transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries? American Psychologist, 52(2), 130-139.
Bass, B. M. (1998). Transformational leadership: Industrial, military, and educational impact. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bass, B. M. (1999a). On the taming of charisma: A reply to Janice Beyer. Leadership Quarterly, 10(4), 541-553.
Bass, B. M. (1999b). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 9-26.
Bass, B. M. (2000). The future of leadership in learning organizations. Journal of Leadership Studies, 7(3), 18-40.
Bass, B. M. (2001). The ethics of transformational leadership. Retrieved July 6, 2005, from http://www.academy.umd.edu/publications/klspdocs/bbass_p1.htm
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1990). The implications of transactional and transformational leadership for individual, team, and organizational development. In R. W. Woodman & W. A. Pasmore (Eds.), Research in organizational change and development (Vol. 4, pp. 231-272). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Transformational leadership: a response to critiques. In M. M. Chemers & R. Ayman (Eds.), Leadership theory and research: Perspectives and directions (pp. 49-80). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994a). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994b). Transformational leadership and organizational culture. International Journal of Public Administration, 17(3/4), 541-554.
Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., & Atwater, L. E. (1996). The transformational and transactional leadership of men and women. International Review of Applied Psychology, 45, 5-34.
Bass, B. M., & Steidlmeier, P. (1999). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 181-217.
Bass, B. M., Waldman, D. A., Avolio, B. J., & Bebb, M. (1987). Transformational leadership and the falling dominoes effect. Group & Organization Studies, 12(1), 73-87.
Beare, H. (1999). O for leaders who have great souls! Educational Leadership Online: Australian Council for Educational Administration.
Beauchamp, T. L., & Bowie, N. E. (2004). Ethical theory and business (7th ed.). New York: Pearson Education.
Bell-Roundtree, C. V. (2004). Does manager behavior influence knowledge worker job satisfaction and organizational commitment attitudes? A validation of Kouzes and Posner’s transformational leadership theory. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, The University of Alabama in Huntsville.
Bennis, W. G. (1989). Why leaders can’t lead: The unconscious conspiracy continues. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bennis, W. G. (2003). On becoming a leader. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.
Bennis, W. G., & Nanus, B. (1997). Leaders: Strategies for taking charge (2nd ed.). New York: HarperBusiness.
Berry, A. J., & Cartwright, S. (2000). Leadership: A critical construction. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21(7), 342-349.
Beyer, J. M. (1999). Taming and promoting charisma to change organizations. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 307-330.
Bhindi, N., & Duignan, P. (1997). Leadership for a new century: Authenticity, intentionality, spirituality and sensibility. Educational Management & Administration, 25(2), 117-132.
Blanchard, K. H. (1998). Servant-leadership revisited. In L. C. Spears (Ed.), Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant-leadership (pp. 21-28). New York: Wiley.
Blanchard, K. H. (1999). The heart of a leader. Tulsa, OK: Honor Books.
Blanchard, K. H., & Hodges, P. (2002). The servant leader: Transforming your heart, head, hands, & habits. Nashville, TN: Countryman.
Block, P. (1996). Stewardship. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (1995). Leading with soul: An uncommon journey of spirit. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bowie, N. (2000). A Kantian theory of leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21(4), 185-193.
Bracey, H. J. (1990). Managing from the heart. New York: Delacorte Press.
Bryman, A. (1993). Charismatic leadership in business organizations: Some neglected issues. Leadership Quarterly, 4(3/4), 289-304.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
Bycio, P., Hackett, R. D., & Allen, J. S. (1995). Further assessments of Bass’s (1985) conceptualization of transactional and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(4), 468-478.
Calder, B. J. (1977). An attribution theory of leadership. In B. M. Staw & G. R. Salancik (Eds.), New direction in organizational behavior. Chicago: St. Clair.
Callo, J. F. (1999). Legacy of leadership: Lessons from Admiral Lord Nelson. Central Point, OR: Hellgate Press.
Chakraborty, S. K., & Chakraborty, D. (2004). The transformed leader and spiritual psychology: A few insights. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2), 194-210.
Chaleff, I. (1998). Spiritual leadership. Executive Excellence, 15(5), 9.
Champy, J. (1995). Reengineering management: The mandate for new leadership. New York: HarperBusiness.
Clemmer, J. (1999). Growing the distance: Timeless principles for personal, career, and family success. Canadian Manager, 24(2), 10-12.
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (1994). Built to last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York: HarperBusiness.
Conger, J. A. (1989). The charismatic leader: Behind the mystique of exceptional leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Conger, J. A. (1992). Learning to lead: The art of transforming managers into leaders. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Conger, J. A. (1994). Spirit at work: Discovering the spirituality in leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Conger, J. A. (1999). Charismatic and transformational leadership in organizations: An insider’s perspective on these developing streams of research. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 145-169.
Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). Charismatic leadership: The elusive factor in organizational effectiveness. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1998). Charismatic leadership in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Conger, J. A., Kanungo, R. N., & Menon, S. T. (2000). Charismatic leadership and follower effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(7), 747-767.
Covey, S. R. (1990). The seven habits of highly effective people. New York: Fireside Books.
Covey, S. R. (1991). Principle-centered leadership. New York: Summit Books.
Davis, G. F., & Useem, M. (2001). Governance leadership and convergence. Corporate Board, 22(127), 17-21.
Day, C. (2000). Beyond transformational leadership. Educational Leadership, 57(7), 56-59.
Dearborn, K. (2002). Studies in emotional intelligence redefine our approach to leadership development. Public Personnel Management, 31(4), 523-530.
Dennis, R. S. (2004). Servant leadership theory: Development of the Servant Leadership Assessment Instrument. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Regent University.
DePree, M. (1990). Leadership is an art. New York: Dell.
DePree, M. (1993). Leadership jazz. New York: Dell.
Dess, G. G., & Picken, J. C. (2000). Changing roles: Leadership in the 21st century. Organizational Dynamics, 28(3), 18-33.
Dickson, R. (1995). Culturing personal leadership. CMA Magazine, 69(1), 10-14.
Dionne, S. D., Yammarino, F. J., Atwater, L. E., & Spangler, W. D. (2004). Transformational leadership and team performance. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2), 177-193.
Dubinsky, A. J., Yammarino, F. J., & Jolson, M. A. (1995). An examination of linkages between personal characteristics and dimensions of transformational leadership. Journal of Business and Psychology, 9(2), 315-335.
Dvir, T., Eden, D., Avolio, B. J., & Shamir, B. (2002). Impact of transformational leadership on follower development and performance: A field experiment. Academy of Management Journal, 45(4), 735-744.
Dvir, T., Kass, N., & Shamir, B. (2004). The emotional bond: Vision and organizational commitment among high-tech employees. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2), 126-143.
Fairholm, G. W. (1996). Spiritual leadership: Fulfilling whole-self needs at work. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 17(5), 11-17.
Farling, M. L., Stone, A. G., & Winston, B. E. (1999). Servant leadership: Setting the stage for empirical research. Journal of Leadership Studies, 6(1/2), 49-72.
Field, D. (2004). The relationship between transformational leadership and spirituality in business leaders. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Regent University.
Fondas, N. (1997). Feminization unveiled: Management qualities in contemporary writings. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 257-282.
Forney, N. A. (1999). Rommel in the boardroom. Business Horizons, 42(4), 37-42.
Freeman, R. E. (2004). A stakeholder theory of the modern corporation. In T. L. Beauchamp & N. E. Bowie (Eds.), Ethical theory and business (7th ed., pp. 55-64). New York: Pearson Education.
Frick, D. M. (1998). Understanding Robert K. Greenleaf and servant-leadership. In L. C. Spears (Ed.), Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant-leadership (pp. 353-360). New York: Wiley.
Fulmer, R. M., & Wagner, S. (1999). Leadership: Lessons from the best. Training & Development, 53(3), 28-32.
Gardiner, J. J. (1998). Quiet presence: The holy ground of leadership. In L. C. Spears (Ed.), Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant-leadership (pp. 116-125). New York: Wiley.
Gardner, J. W. (1990). On leadership. New York: Free Press.
Gardner, W. L., & Avolio, B. J. (1998). The charismatic relationship: A dramaturgical perspective. Academy of Management Review, 23(1), 32-58.
Giampetro-Meyer, A., Brown, T., Browne, S. J. M. N., & Kubasek, N. (1998). Do we really want more leaders in business? Journal of Business Ethics, 17(15), 1728-1736.
Gibbons, T. C. (1987). Revisiting the question of born vs. made: Toward a theory of development of transformational leaders. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, The Fielding Institute.
Goss, T. (1995). The last word on power. New York: Doubleday.
Graham, J. W. (1991). Servant-leadership in organizations: Inspirational and moral. Leadership Quarterly, 2(2), 105-119.
Greenleaf, R. K. (1970). The servant as leader. Indianapolis, IN: The Robert Greenleaf Center.
Griffin, N. S. (2003). Personalize your management development. Harvard Business Review, 81(3), 113-119.
Gronn, P. (1999). A realist view of leadership, Educational Leadership Online: The Australian Council for Educational Administration.
Harrison, R. (1987). Harnessing personal energy: How companies can inspire employees. Organizational Dynamics, 16(2), 5-20.
Haughom, J. L. (2003). How to pass the stress test; An IT executive tells the story of his own stress-related breakdown and recovery, and reveals what you can do to avoid the abyss. CIO, 16(14), 1.
Heifetz, R. A., & Laurie, D. L. (2001). The work of leadership. Harvard Business Review, 79(11), 131-140.
Hesse, H. (1995). Journey to the east. London: Picador.
Hinkin, T. R., & Tracey, J. B. (1999). The relevance of charisma for transformational leadership in stable organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(2), 105-119.
Hogg, M. A. (2001). A social identity theory of leadership. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 5(3), 184-200.
Horsman, J. H. (2001). Perspectives of servant-leadership and spirit in organizations. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Gonzaga University.
Howard, M. P. (2004). A study of the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational culture. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Western Michigan University.
Howell, J. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, locus of control, and support for innovation: Key predictors of consolidated-business-unit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(6), 891-902.
Howell, J. M., & Frost, P. (1989). A laboratory study of charismatic leadership. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 43(2), 243-269.
Humphreys, J. H. (2001). Transformational and transactional leader behavior. Journal of Management Research, 1(3), 149-160.
Hunt, J. G., & Conger, J. A. (1999). From where we sit: An assessment of transformational and charismatic leadership research. Leadership Quarterly, 10(3), 335-343.
Hunter, J. C. (2004). The world’s most powerful leadership principle: How to become a servant leader. New York: Crown Business.
Ibrahim, M. E. (2004). Measuring training effectiveness. Journal of Management Research, 4(3), 147-155.
Isaacson, J. A. (2001). Spiritual leadership. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Seattle University.
Jackson, R. (2001). Invest in a quality work force through ICPF. Paperboard Packaging, 86(5), 62.
Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (1995). Student achievement through staff development: Fundamentals of school renewal (2nd ed.). New York: Longman.
Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2000). Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), 751-765.
Judge, T. A., Heller, D., & Mount, M. K. (2002). Five-factor model of personality and job satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 530-541.
Jung, D. I., & Avolio, B. J. (2000). Opening the black box: An experimental investigation of the mediating effects of trust and value congruence on transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(8), 949-964.
Kaiser, L. R. (n.d.-a). 21st Century leadership. In: Spiritual Leadership Institute Retrieved September 7, 2005, from http://www.spirit4greatness.com/admin/fileupload/articles/a21cleadership.pdf
Kaiser, L. R. (n.d.-b). Spirituality in business. In: Spiritual Leadership Institute Retrieved September 7, 2005, from http://www.spirit4greatness.com/admin/fileupload/articles/spiritbiz18.pdf
Kanungo, R. N., & Mendonca, M. (1996). Ethical dimensions of leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Kark, R. (2004). The transformational leader: Who is (s)he? A feminist perspective. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2), 160-176.
Kelley, R. E. (1998). Followership in a leadership world. In L. C. Spears (Ed.), Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant-leadership (pp. 170-184). New York: Wiley.
Kelman, H. C. (1958). Compliance, identification, and internalization three processes of attitude change. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2(1), 51-60.
Kelman, H. C. (1974). Further thoughts on the processes of compliance, identification, and internalization. In J. T. Tedeschi (Ed.), Perspectives on social power (pp. 125-171). Chicago: Aldine.
Kets de Vries, M. F. R. (1993). Leaders, fools, and impostors: Essays on the psychology of leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Keyes, M. W., Hanley-Maxwell, C., & Capper, C. A. (1999). “Spirituality? It’s the Core of My Leadership”: Empowering leadership in an inclusive elementary school. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35(2), 203-237.
Khurana, R. (2002). The curse of the superstar CEO. Harvard Business Review, 80(9), 60-66.
Kirby, P. C., Paradise, L. V., & King, M. I. (1992). Extraordinary leaders in education: Understanding transformational leadership. Journal of Educational Research, 85(5), 303-311.
Kirkpatrick, S. A., & Locke, E. A. (1996). Direct and indirect effects of three core charismatic leadership components on performance and attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(1), 36-51.
Kofman, F., & Senge, P. M. (1993). Communities of commitment: The heart of learning organizations. Organizational Dynamics, 22(2), 4-23.
Korac-Kakabadse, N., Kouzmin, A., & Kakabadse, A. (2002). Spirituality and leadership praxis. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(3), 165-182.
Kouzes, J. M. (1998). Finding your voice. In L. C. Spears (Ed.), Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant-leadership (pp. 322-325). New York: Wiley.
Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1987). The leadership challenge: How to get extraordinary things done in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kuhnert, K. W., & Lewis, P. (1987). Transactional and transformational leadership: A constructive/developmental analysis. Academy of Management Review, 12(4), 648-657.
Lapp, J. E. (1999). New models of leadership. Executive Excellence, 16(6), 20.
Laub, J. A. (1999). Assessing the servant organization: Development of the Servant Organizational Leadership Assessment (SOLA) instrument. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University.
Lauer, C. S. (2003). Spiritual leadership. Modern Healthcare, 33(21), 20.
Loehr, J., & Schwartz, T. (2001). The making of a corporate athlete. Harvard Business Review, 79(1), 120-128.
Lord, R. G. (2000). Thinking outside the box by looking inside the box: Extending the cognitive revolution in leadership research. Leadership Quarterly, 11(4), 551-579.
Lowe, K. B., Kroeck, G. K., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the MLQ literature. Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 385-425.
Lyons, M. F. (2002). Leadership and followership. Physician Executive, 28(1), 91-93.
Marcic, D. (1997). Managing with the wisdom of love: Uncovering virtue in people and organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Maslow, A. H. (1998). Toward a psychology of being (3rd ed.). New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
Maurer, R. (2005). Sustaining commitment to change. Journal for Quality & Participation, 28(1), 30-35.
Maxwell, J. C. (2002). Leadership 101: What every leader needs to know. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.
McCall, J. J. (2002). Leadership and ethics: Corporate accountability to whom, for what and by what means? Journal of Business Ethics, 38(1/2), 133-139.
McClane, W. E. (1991). Implications of member role differentiation: Analysis of a key concept in the LMX model of leadership. Group & Organization Studies, 16(1), 102-113.
McCollum, J. N. (1998). The inside-out proposition: Finding (and keeping) our balance in contemporary organizations. In L. C. Spears (Ed.), Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant-leadership (pp. 326-339). New York: Wiley.
McCrimmon, M. (n.d.). Servant leadership. Leadersdirect Retrieved July 25, 2005, from http://www.leadersdirect.com/servant.html
McGill, M. E., & Slocum, J. W., Jr. (1998). A little leadership, please? Organizational Dynamics, 26(3), 39-49.
Meindl, J. R. (1990). On leadership: An alternative to the conventional wisdom. Research in Organizational Behavior, 12, 159-204.
Meindl, J. R., Ehrlich, S. B., & Dukerich, J. M. (1985). The romance of leadership. Administrative Science Quarterly, 30(1), 78-102.
Michaelson, C. (2001). Is business ethics philosophy or sophism? Business Ethics: A European Review, 10(4), 331-339.
Mitroff, I. I., & Denton, E. A. (1999a). A spiritual audit of corporate America: A hard look at spirituality, religion, and values in the workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mitroff, I. I., & Denton, E. A. (1999b). A study of spirituality in the workplace. Sloan Management Review, 40(4), 83-92.
Mumford, M. D., Zaccaro, S. J., Harding, F. D., Jacobs, T. O., & Fleishman, E. A. (2000). Leadership skills for a changing world: Solving complex social problems. Leadership Quarterly, 11(1), 11-35.
New data: E-learning is the most effective way to control costs. (2003). Report on Customer Relationship Management, 2003(1), 5-6.
Northouse, P. G. (2004). Leadership: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Nystrom, P. C. (1982). Managers’ personalities and their leadership perceptions. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 10(2), 189-195.
O’Hair, M. J., & Odell, S. J. (1995). Educating teachers for leadership and change: Teacher education yearbook (Vol. III). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Outhwaite, S. (2003). The importance of leadership in the development of an integrated team. Journal of Nursing Management, 11(6), 371-376.
Owen, H. (1999). The spirit of leadership: Liberating the leader in each of us. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Parachin, V. M. (2005). The ABC’s of spiritual leadership. Clergy Journal, 81(8), 15-16.
Patterson, K. A. (2003). Servant leadership: A theoretical model. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Regent University.
Pawar, B. S. (2003). Central conceptual issues in transformational leadership research. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24(7/8), 397-406.
Pawar, B. S. (2004a). Introduction. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2), 125.
Pawar, B. S. (Ed.). (2004b). Transformational leadership research: issues and implications. Bradford, UK: Emerald.
Pawar, B. S., & Eastman, K. K. (1997). The nature and implications of contextual influences on transformational leadership: A conceptual examination. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 80-109.
Pettigrew, A. M. (1987). Context and action in the transformation of the firm. Journal of Management Studies, 24(6), 649-670.
Phillips, A. S., & Bedeian, A. G. (1994). Leader-follower exchange quality: The role of personal and interpersonal attributes. Academy of Management Journal, 37(4), 990-1000.
Pillai, R., & Williams, E. A. (2004). Transformational leadership, self-efficacy, group cohesiveness, commitment, and performance. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2), 144-159.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Bommer, W. H. (1996). Transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership as determinants of employee satisfaction, commitment, trust, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Management, 22(2), 259-298.
Pollard, C. W. (1996). The leader who serves. In F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith & R. Beckhard (Eds.), The leader of the future (pp. 241-248). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Porter, L. W., & Bigley, G. A. (2001). Motivation and transformational leadership: Some organizational context issues. In M. Erez, U. Kleinbeck & H. Thierry (Eds.), Work motivation in the context of a globalizing economy. (pp. 279-291). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.
Random House unabridged dictionary. (2nd ed.)(1993). 2nd ed.). New York: Random House.
Reitzug, U. C. (1994). A case study of empowering principal behavior. American Educational Research Journal, 31(2), 283-307.
Research and results. (2003). Strategic HR Review, 2(5), 12-13.
Rezach, K. B. (2002). Spiritual leadership as a model of effective leadership in independent schools. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Seton Hall University College of Education and Human Services.
Roberts, W. (1989). Leadership secrets of Attila the Hun. New York: Warner Books.
Ross, S. M., & Offerman, L. R. (1997). Transformational leaders: Measurement of personality attributes and work group performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(10), 1078-1086.
Russell, R. F. (2001). The role of values in servant leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 22(2), 76-83.
Russell, R. F., & Stone, A. G. (2002). A review of servant leadership attributes: Developing a practical model. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(3/4), 145-157.
Scandura, T. A. (1999). Rethinking leader-member exchange: An organizational justice perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 10(1), 25-40.
Seltzer, J., & Bass, B. M. (1990). Transformational leadership: Beyond initiation and consideration. Journal of Management, 16(4), 693-703.
Seltzer, J., & Numerof, R. E. (1988). Supervisory leadership and subordinate burnout. Academy of Management Journal, 31(2), 439-446.
Sendjaya, S., & Sarros, J. C. (2002). Servant leadership: It’s origin, development, and application in organizations. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9(2), 57-64.
Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday.
Senge, P. M. (1997). Communities of leaders and learners. Harvard Business Review, 75(5), 30-32.
Senge, P. M. (1999). The dance of change: The challenges of sustaining momentum in learning organizations. New York: Doubleday.
Sergiovanni, T. J. (1994). Organizations or communities? Changing the metaphor changes the theory. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30(2), 214-226.
Sergiovanni, T. J. (1995, 5/10/1995). Schools are special places. Education Week, p. 48.
Shamir, B. (1991). The charismatic relationship: Alternative explanations and predictions. Leadership Quarterly, 2(2), 81-104.
Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization Science, 4(4), 577-594.
Shelton, K. (2000). Soul of leadership. Executive Excellence, 17(5), 2-3.
Sidani, Y. M. (1993). Perceptions of charisma: The influence of leader attributes, leader speech, and follower self-esteem. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Mississippi.
Smith, B. J. (1982). An initial test of a theory of charismatic leadership based on the responses of subordinates. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Toronto.
Smith, B. N., Montagno, R. V., & Kuzmenko, T. N. (2004). Transformational and servant leadership: Content and contextual comparisons. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10(4), 80-91.
Spears, L. C. (1998a). Tracing the growing impact of servant-leadership. In L. C. Spears (Ed.), Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant-leadership (pp. 1-12). New York: Wiley.
Spears, L. C. (2002). On character and servant-leadership: Ten characteristics of effective, caring leaders. Robert K. Greenleaf Center for Servant-Leadership Retrieved July 26, 2005, from http://www.greenleaf.org/leadership/read-about-it/articles/On-Character-and-Servant-Leadership-Ten-Characteristics.htm
Spears, L. C. (Ed.). (1998b). Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant-leadership. New York: Wiley.
Spears, L. C., & Lawrence, M. (2002). Focus on leadership: Servant-leadership for the twenty-first century. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.
Spitzer, R. J. (2000). The ethical leader. Executive Excellence, 17(5), 4.
Spitzer, R. J. (2001). The spirit of leadership: Optimizing creativity and change in organizations. Provo, UT: Executive Excellence.
Stage, B. R., & Dean, M. A. (2000). Leadership in the 21st century–unchartered waters or same drip. PA Times, 23(7), 4.
Starratt, R. J., & Guare, R. (1995). The spirituality of leadership. Planning and Changing(Fall/Winter), 190-203.
Stevens, C. U., D’Intino, R. S., & Victor, B. (1995). The moral quandary of transformational leadership: Change for whom? Research in Organizational Change and Development, 8, 123-143.
Stone, A. G., Russell, R. F., & Patterson, K. (2004). Transformational versus servant leadership: A difference in leader focus. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(3/4), 349-361.
Sun Tzu, & Clavell, J. (1983). The art of war. New York: Delacorte Press.
Tichy, N. M., & Devanna, M. A. (1986). The transformational leader. New York: Wiley.
Tischler, L., Biberman, J., & McKeage, R. (2002). Linking emotional intelligence, spirituality and workplace performance: Definitions, models and ideas for research. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(3), 203-218.
Tracey, J. B., & Hinkin, T. R. (1998). Transformational leadership or effective managerial practices? Group & Organization Management, 23(3), 220-236.
Vandenberghe, C. (1999). Transactional vs. transformational leadership: Suggestions for further research. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 26-32.
Vroom, V. H., & Yetton, P. W. (1973). Leadership and decision-making. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Waldman, D. A., Bass, B. M., & Yammarino, F. J. (1990). Adding To contingent-reward behavior: The augmenting effect of charismatic leadership. Group & Organization Studies, 15(4), 381-394.
Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization (A. M. Henderson & T. Parsons, Trans.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Wheatley, M. J. (1992). Leadership and the new science: Learning about organization from an orderly universe. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Wheatley, M. J. (2002). Spiritual leadership. Executive Excellence, 19(9), 5-6.
Wieand, P. (2002). Drucker’s challenge: Communication and the emotional glass ceiling. Ivey Business Journal, 66(5), 33-37.
Winston, M. G. (1997). Leadership of renewal: Leadership for the 21st century. Business Forum, 22(1), 4-7.
Wolf, E. J. (2004). Spiritual leadership: A new model. Healthcare Executive, 19(2), 22-25.
Wong, N. (2000). Let spirit guide leadership. Workforce, 79(2), 33-36.
Yukl, G. A. (1989). Managerial leadership: A review of theory and research. Journal of Management, 15(2), 251-289.
Yukl, G. A. (1999a). An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 285-305.
Yukl, G. A. (1999b). An evaluative essay on current conceptions of effective leadership. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 33-48.
Yukl, G. A. (2005). Leadership in organizations (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.